10 Most Common Mental Disorders

Last updated on July 7th, 2022 at 08:39 pm

In the present times, with the increase in globalization, urbanization, and technology boom, there is a resurgence in the number of common mental health Disorders or diseases.

What-is-Common-Mental-Disorders

Earlier mental health diseases were completely unheard of because people were more physically and mentally healthy.

On the contrary, today, mental health diseases have become common. It is a sad reality, but it is true.

Even a seventh-grade kid says he has depression just because he failed his exams. Are we moving in the right direction? The answer is a clear ‘No’.

Here we will discuss the top 10 common mental disorders that have disturbed most people’s mental health in this world.

10 Common Mental Disorders

1. Depression

Depression is a serious mental condition that negatively impacts people’s thoughts, moods, and actions.

It surrounds a person with the feeling of Sadness at all times.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of Clinical Depression are:

  • Increased levels of Sadness.
  • Lack of Enthusiasm about anything that interested the person before.
  • Weight loss or gain due to the change in eating habits.
  • Fatigue.
  • Insomnia or too much sleep.
  • Loss of Attention.
  • Laziness or Hyperactivity. 
  • Feeling of disgust for life.
  • Suicidal Tendencies.

Treatment:

  • Medications include Antidepressants.
  • Psychotherapy.
  • Group Counseling.
  • Family Counseling.
  • Self-care.

2. Anxiety

Anxiety is a mental disorder characterized by an overwhelmed response to stressful and dangerous situations in life.

Anxiety disorders can be of many types like Phobias, Panic Disorders, Separation Anxiety Disorder, Hypochondriac, etc.

Symptoms:

  • Shortness of Breath.
  • Dry Mouth.
  • Sweating.
  • Fear.
  • Dizzy Feeling.
  • Chills or Hot Flashes.
  • Numbness or Tingling.

Treatment:

  • Medications include Anti Anxiety medications and Antidepressants.
  • Psychotherapy includes Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.
  • Counselling Sessions.

Read – Difference Between Anxiety, Depression, And Stress

3. OCD:

OCD stands for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

It is a mental health disorder characterized by doing repetitive actions in a loop. It is a form of obsession with a particular task or act.

The obsessions are a result of fear and unwanted thoughts.

Symptoms:

The symptoms can be of two types, Obsessions and Compulsions.

Obsession symptoms are characterized by,

  • Requiring things to be aligned always.
  • Fear of contamination.
  • Fear of dirt.
  • The patients have continuous unwanted thoughts about hurting someone or themselves.
  • The patient has unwanted thoughts about sexual things, religious objects, aggression, etc.

             Compulsion symptoms are characterized by,

  • Repetitive washing and cleaning.
  • Continuous arranging of things.
  • Multiple checking and counting routine.
  • A Perfect Strict Routine.
  • Continuous demand for Reassurance.

Treatment:

 The treatment of OCD can be done using Medications and Psychotherapy.

                Medications include the use of antidepressants.

                Psychotherapy is done by Therapists using CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Treatment) and

                ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy).

                Other lines of treatments for OCD are Deep Brain Stimulation, Repetitive Transcranial.

                Magnetic Stimulation (RTMS) and ElectroConvulsive Therapy (ECT).

4. Bipolar Disorder:

It is a mental disorder characterized by high levels of mood swings. The mood swings can be a complete emotional high or a deep low.

Bipolar Disorder has both extreme anxiety and depression.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of Bipolar disease can be under 2 categories- Mania and Depression.

The Maniac symptoms are,

  • Extremely high energy.
  • Enormously paced thoughts.
  • Heavy activity.
  • Euphoria.
  • Excessive Talkativeness.
  • Reduced need for sleep.
  • Indecisiveness.

             The Depression symptoms are,

  • Depressed mood
  • Loss of interest in anyone or anything.
  • Excessive sleep or insomnia.
  • Restlessness.
  • The patients either lose or gain weight.
  • Fatigue.
  • Suicidal tendencies.

Treatments:

The treatment for Bipolar Disorder usually involves treating mood swings.

             The anxiety phase is treated using anti-anxiety medications, and the depression phase

              is treated using antidepressants.

             The other line of treatment is seeking Psychotherapy with a Therapist.

5. Schizophrenia:

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by the imagination of a false reality.

Schizophrenic patients have frequent hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech and thoughts.

Symptoms:

  • Frequent Hallucinations.
  • Delusions.
  • Disorganized Speech.
  • Haphazard thoughts.
  • Abnormal activity.
  • Dysfunctional daily habits.

Treatment:

The treatment has two modalities- Medications and Psychotherapy.

              The medications given to Schizophrenics are antipsychotics like olanzapine,

              Risperidone, etc.

              Psychotherapy is done with a Therapist using CBT.

              Other forms of therapy include family counselling and ECT.

6. Autism:

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder witnessed in the first 3 years of birth.

Autistic Children have a lack of social communication with restricted and repetitive behaviors.

Symptoms:

  • The patient has no social communication.
  • Patients have no eye contact or facial expressions.
  • Very poor understanding level.
  • Aggressive and extremely disruptive when touched.
  • Repetition of phrases or words.
  • Repetitive motor movements like spinning, shaking, etc.
  • Sensitive to light and sound.
  • Prone to Self-harm.
  • Lack of brain and muscle coordination.
  • Fussy and picky food habits.

Treatment:

The line of treatments to be followed for Autism are:

  • Medications include Antipsychotics and Stimulants.
  • Behavioral Therapy.
  • Speech and Language Therapy.
  • Educational Therapy.
  • Family Counseling.

7. ADHD

ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

It is a mental disorder which is prevalent in children aged 6-12years.

It is characterized by a pattern of lack of attention and hyperactivity. It interferes with the functioning and development of children.

Symptoms:

The Inattentive types have the following symptoms,

  • Lack of attention.
  • They are easily distracted.
  • Bad organization skills due to disorganized thoughts.
  • Low grasping power.
  • Lack of listening.
  • No focus.
  • Slow processing of tasks or information.

              The Hyperactive types have the following symptoms,

  • Restlessness.
  • Extremely impatient.
  • Very Talkative.
  • Hyperactive.
  • Cannot sit still.   

Treatment:

The treatment for ADHD includes

              Behavioural Therapy, Management

              Training, CBT and counselling.

8. Eating Disorders:

It might seem extremely weird, but eating disorders are a kind of mental disorder.

It is characterized by persistent eating behavior that affects a person physically, emotionally, and mentally.

Symptoms:

Eating disorders can be of three types- Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge eating disorder.

In Anorexia Nervosa, the patient is extremely scared to eat and fears gaining weight due to eating. It has the highest suicidal tendencies.

In Bulimia Nervosa, the patient has recurrent episodes of eating, followed by compensatory behaviors like forced vomiting, laxatives, or diuretics.

In a Binge eating disorder, the patient loses control and has continuous eating episodes even after being full.

Treatment:

  • Psychotherapy.
  • Nutritional Counseling.
  • Medications like antidepressants, antipsychotics and mood stabilizers.
  • Family Counseling.

9. PTSD:

PTSD stands for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

It is characterized by continuous negative and fearful thoughts about a traumatic episode in life.

Symptoms:

  • Hallucinations, nightmares and flashbacks about the trauma.
  • Social Avoidance.
  • Anxiety.
  • Insomnia due to fear.
  • Anger, hatred, irritability.
  • Huge negativity.

Treatment:

  • Anti Anxiety medications.
  • Psychotherapy.
  • CBT.
  • Family Counseling.

10. Substance Abuse:

Substance abuse is a type of mental disorder.

It occurs due to the abuse of addictive substances like drugs, alcohol, tobacco, etc.

It affects the daily life activities of a person.

Symptoms:

  • Insomnia.
  • Impaired memory, cognition and vision.
  • Watery and red eyes.
  • Puffiness on the face.
  • Lack of social life.
  • Depression.

Treatment:

  • Medications include Antidepressants.
  • Behavioral Therapy.
  • Group Therapy.
  • Family Counseling.

Conclusion:

As we have seen above, many mental disorders prevail in this world. Mental disorders can affect a person’s daily activities, social life, and personal and professional life.

Often, an individual cannot understand and acknowledge the mental problem they are facing. It is always ideal to visit a therapist or counselor when you face extreme changes in your behavior or friends and family.

Mental Disorders can have impending effects on an individual’s life, and it is better to resort to preventable methods before the disease takes up a horrifying space in your mind.

Socializing is a great way to let people around you knows that you’re fine. Some people do not like socializing at all, but still, you must keep in touch with your family and your close ones. When you see someone around you is going through some mental trauma, please give a helping hand.

Mental diseases, unless developmental, can be preventable with proper medication and therapy. Adopt a great self-care routine, relaxation techniques, and physical activity to stay sane in life.

Your mind is your biggest asset, and don’t make it fall into the trap of mental health issues. Always try to indulge in activities that improve your mental health and enhance your physical well being.